327. Express terms as to loading and discharge of cargo.

A charterparty usually provides that the cargo is to be brought to and taken from alongside, if necessary by lighters, at the charterer's risk and expense1. Where, however, it is necessary to employ boats for the purpose, the risk and expense of so doing may be imposed, by an express term, on the shipowner2. In the same way, the charterparty may extend the obligations of the charterer, and may require him to provide either wholly or in part for the shipment, stowage3 or discharge of the cargo4. In this case he may be protected by a negligence clause against