199. Employment and indemnity clauses.

Time charterparties often contain an 'employment and indemnity clause', the precise wording of such a clause varying in detail. Such a clause may provide, for example, that the master is to be under the orders of the charterer as regards employment, agency and other arrangements and that the charterer is to indemnify the owner against consequences or liabilities arising from the master, officers or agents signing bills of lading or other documents or otherwise complying with such orders1.

Where the orders of the charterer are carried out, or bills of lading are signed2, and loss or damage is sustained as