485. Construction of general terms of incorporation in bill of lading.

Where the incorporation clause in the bill of lading is drawn in general terms, the courts will look to the width of those terms with a view to deciding whether they adequately describe the charterparty clause which it is sought to incorporate. Most of the decisions relate to the precise ambit of the word 'conditions' which is often used in general clauses of incorporation. Many of the decisions are, however, very old and may need to be treated with care in the light of more recent judicial approaches to incorporation1.

Where the bill of lading seeks to incorporate 'conditions' from