198. Construction of exceptions.

Exceptions will traditionally be construed against the shipowner who relies on them, and, unless their language clearly covers the cause of loss or damage in question1, they will not relieve him from liability2. In particular, in the absence of an express term negativing or reducing his implied undertakings to take reasonable care, to provide a seaworthy ship and not to deviate, it was assumed that the exceptions were not intended to apply to these undertakings3