321. Collisions, strandings and accidents of navigation.

Where there is a collision1, the exception of 'loss or damage by collision, strandings and accidents of navigation'2 does not protect the shipowner where the collision is attributable either wholly or in part to the negligence or default of his own master or crew3.

A ship is not 'stranded' within the meaning of the exception where she takes the ground in the ordinary course of navigation4, unless owing to the state of the ground there is some hidden danger the existence of which could not reasonably have been anticipated5. To bring the case within the exception, the stranding must be

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