55. Carriage of goods by sea.

Where the contract is covered by a bill of lading or similar document of title1, the rights and liabilities of carriers of goods by sea are governed by the Hague-Visby Rules2. These require the carrier, before and at the beginning of the voyage, to exercise due diligence to make the ship seaworthy3, properly to man, equip and supply the ship4, and to make the holds, refrigerating and cool chambers, and all other parts of the ship in which goods are carried, fit and safe for their reception, carriage and preservation5. The carrier must also properly and carefully load, handle,