433. Bill of lading as a receipt; statements about the goods.

A bill of lading is an acknowledgment of the receipt of the goods specified in it1. It usually contains various representations as to the quantity and condition of the goods and other matters relating to the shipment. If fraudulently or negligently made, such representations may form the basis of a claim in tort against the carrier by third parties who suffer loss in reliance on them, in particular consignees who take up and pay for the shipping documents when, if the true facts had been stated, they would have been entitled to reject them2.

A bill of lading is prima