Invitations to tender from public bodies are subject to the provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union1 concerning free movement of goods and services2. Conditions attached to invitations to tender which restrict the free movement of goods, have equivalent effect to such a restriction, or discriminate on the grounds of nationality are in breach of the Treaty and will be struck down if proceedings are brought by the EC Commission against the member state concerned. Thus provisions requiring compliance of tender materials and tenderers with national standards may have equivalent effect to a restriction
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Dividends involve a distribution of cash or a distribution of non-cash assets (known as a distribution in kind or a distribution in specie).A scrip dividend (in a tax context, sometimes referred to as a stock dividend) allows a shareholder to receive new shares in a company as an alternative to a
The roles of nominated officer and money laundering reporting officerA nominated officer is an individual who is nominated by a firm to receive disclosures under Part 7 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 (POCA 2002) or Part III of the Terrorism Act 2000 (TA 2000)—see Requirement to appoint a
Who is a fiduciary?There is no comprehensive list of the relationships which give rise to the existence of fiduciary duties under common law. Some relationships are automatically fiduciary, eg those between trustee and beneficiary, solicitor and client, principal and agent, business partner and
This Practice Note provides guidance on the interpretation and application of the relevant provisions of the CPR. Depending on the court in which your matter is proceeding, you may also need to be mindful of additional provisions—see further below.You should also consider if the proceedings will be
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