To replace the single status of citizenship of the United Kingdom and colonies1, the restructured nationality law which took effect on 1 January 19832 provided two major permanent categories of citizenship3, each with territorial associations: (1) British citizenship4, linked with the territory of the United Kingdom itself (and Gibraltar and, retrospectively, the Falkland Islands); and (2) British overseas territories citizenship5, linked with all the British overseas territories6. However, not all former citizens of the United Kingdom and colonies could be accommodated within these two categories, because some were not, or were no longer, sufficiently closely connected to any of
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Millett LJ subdivided types of constructive trust into two categories, distinguishing between:•the constructive trust proper, where equity intervenes to prevent the legal owner from unconscionably denying the beneficial interest of another (known as the institutional constructive trust)•the
When is quantum meruit and quantum valebat relevant?Claims in quantum meruit (value of services) and quantum valebat (value of goods) arise in diverse situations ranging from where contractual terms are silent on issues of payment to where there is no contract at all (Serck v Drake & Scull).General
Source of the doctrine of the separation of powersThe origins of the doctrine are often traced to John Locke’s Second Treatise of Government (1689), in which he identified the 'executive' and 'legislative' powers as needing to be separate.‘… it may be too great a temptation to human frailty, apt to
This Practice Note considers the doctrine of forum non conveniens, also referred to as the appropriate forum or the proper place for a dispute to be determined. This doctrine is of relevance when determining whether the courts of England and Wales have jurisdiction to hear a dispute and is applied
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