414. Estoppel, legitimate expectation and unfairness.

It is a general principle of law that an excess of statutory power cannot be validated by the operation of an estoppel1. Thus, a public authority can deny the validity of its own earlier conduct2. However, it appears that an assurance or representation of fact as to a person's citizenship status made by a public official, whose duties include such matters, to the person affected3, and relied upon by that person to his detriment, can in certain circumstances preclude the Crown from denying such citizenship, even if the assurance or representation was given otherwise than in a manner or