Prior to 1983, naturalisation was the method by which adult aliens and adult British protected persons, and no others, acquired citizenship1; and those who had the status of British subject or Commonwealth citizen acquired citizenship by registration2. Acquisition by minors was, and still is, by registration. Since the expiry of the periods during which previous registration provisions were extended in special cases3, adult Commonwealth citizens who do not hold another form of British nationality4 now normally have to apply for naturalisation in order to acquire citizenship5. British citizenship and British overseas territories citizenship6 are the only forms of British
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ContractWhere a contract is made by two or more parties it may contain a promise or obligation made by two or more of those parties. Any such promise may be:•joint•several, or•joint and severalWhether an undertaking is joint, several, or joint and several in contract is a question of construction
This Practice Note looks at CE-File electronic working in the courts under CPR PD 51O, in the context of case management. It provides guidance on how to file a document electronically, deal with rejected electronic filings, issue a claim electronically, file electronic bundles (eBundles) for case
On the disposition of a property (whether by way of conveyance, transfer or charge), the party making the disposition will normally provide a title guarantee which implies standard form covenants for title. A landlord may give a title guarantee when granting a lease, but this is rare in practice.
Unlike many other countries, the UK has no unfair competition law. Brand owners seeking to prevent competitors from marketing ‘copycat’ products or using misleading advertising have to rely on a combination of different intellectual property rights. These rights include the common law right to
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