The special permission or other authorisation which is required for the operation of scheduled international air services1 may be granted by means of a bilateral treaty between the states concerned, or by virtue of the adherence of the states concerned to an international agreement regarding such matters. Two such agreements already exist: the International Air Services Transit Agreement 1944 (commonly known as the 'Two Freedoms' Agreement), and the International Air Transport Agreement 1944 (commonly known as the 'Five Freedoms' Agreement)2.
Each of the parties to the International Air Services Transit Agreement 1944, which include the United Kingdom, grants to all
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Commercial Property Standard Enquiries (CPSEs) are industry standard pre-contract enquiries used in commercial property transactions. CPSEs are endorsed by the British Property Federation and are free to use. The CPSEs include specific environmental enquiries at enquiry 15 and there are several
Issue estoppel is a sub-species of the res judicata doctrine (see Practice Note: The doctrine of res judicata). In addition to the general key requirements for establishing a res judicata (see Practice Note: Key requirements to establish a res judicata), this Practice Note considers the specific
This Practice Note examines why parties involved in a construction project may enter into an escrow agreement (or escrow deed) to set up an escrow account. It looks at the benefits of paying funds into escrow, how an escrow account operates and the provisions typically found in an escrow
This Practice Note examines:•why negative pledge clauses are used in commercial transactions •the consequences of breaching negative pledge provisions•how negative pledges are viewed in the context of security and quasi-security, and•key considerations when drafting a negative pledge clauseWhere
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