1416. Classification of liabilities.

The civil liabilities of owners and operators of aircraft fall broadly into two categories:


    (1)     the liabilities of the owner or operator, as carrier, to persons who are, or whose goods are, carried in the aircraft1; and


    (2)     those liabilities of the owner or operator which arise independently of the carriage of persons or goods in the aircraft.

The second category includes all liabilities for damage caused to persons or property not being carried in the aircraft, whether such persons or property are in the air, in another aircraft, or on the surface of the ground or water