2. Use of force short of war; reprisals.

Reprisals1 are a method of retaliation for a breach of international law by means of action which would in other circumstances be itself an unjustifiable breach of international law2. At customary international law, reprisals must be preceded by a demand for redress and be commensurate with the provocation and in proportion to the injury suffered by the state resorting to reprisals3. Reprisals do not justify the taking of measures against an innocent third party4. The right to take reprisals may be excluded by treaty