115. Liability for war crimes under English law.

115.     Liability for war crimes under English law.

A treaty may require states party to it to implement certain penal provisions contained in it by establishing national jurisdiction over individuals for an alleged breach of those provisions. This is the effect of the four Geneva Red Cross Conventions and their additional Protocol I1, each of which contains provisions requiring states to enact legislation necessary to provide effective penal sanctions for persons committing, or ordering to be committed, any grave breach of the convention2. The conventions set out the acts or omissions which may constitute grave breaches and