At common law no state of war exists between the United Kingdom and a foreign state until there has been a formal declaration of war by the Crown or hostilities have been commenced by the authority of the Crown on the basis that those hostilities constitute a 'war'1. Similarly a war may be terminated only by the authority of the Crown, and this is usually effected by a treaty of peace and announced to the nation by proclamation or Order in Council2. A certificate of the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs to the effect that the
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Millett LJ subdivided types of constructive trust into two categories, distinguishing between:•the constructive trust proper, where equity intervenes to prevent the legal owner from unconscionably denying the beneficial interest of another (known as the institutional constructive trust)•the
There may be times when, rather than assigning the benefit of an agreement to a third party, the original parties wish instead to end their obligations to each other under that agreement and, in effect, recreate it, with the third party stepping into the shoes of one of the original parties. This is
This Practice Note considers proprietary estoppel from a generic standpoint.For industry specific guidance on proprietary estoppel, see Practice Notes:•Estoppel and property law•Mortgages by estoppelProprietary estoppel—what is it?Unlike the other forms of estoppel (see Practice Note: Estoppel—what,
Issue estoppel is a sub-species of the res judicata doctrine (see Practice Note: The doctrine of res judicata). In addition to the general key requirements for establishing a res judicata (see Practice Note: Key requirements to establish a res judicata), this Practice Note considers the specific
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