Guilty knowledge must be proved if the charge is of causing or procuring the cruelty1. It is not sufficient to show that a defendant would have known of the suffering of the animal had he properly performed his duties2. The mere fact that it is the duty of a man in the position of a manager to see that horses are fit to be worked does not render him liable to be convicted when they are worked in an unfit state, without proof of his knowledge of the actual cruelty3. Where the defendant visited cattle and failed to loosen
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