An occupier of land1 who unreasonably fails to comply with a notice to take action to prevent the spread of injurious weeds2 commits an offence3. Where such a notice has been served on the occupier of land and he has not taken the action required within the time specified in the notice, the Secretary of State or the Welsh Ministers may take that action and recover the reasonable cost of so doing from the occupier or, if it is not practicable after reasonable inquiry to ascertain his name or address and he is not the owner
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This Practice Note explains certain common financial covenants used in commercial finance transactions including:•minimum net worth test•gearing ratio•leverage ratio (or debt to equity ratio)•current ratio (or acid test ratio)•cashflow ratio•interest cover ratio, and•loan to value ratioIt explains:
Deceit—what is it?A deceit occurs when a misrepresentation is made with the express intention of defrauding a party, subsequently causing loss to that party.The elements of a claim in deceit are:•a clear false representation of fact or law•fraud by the maker, in the sense that they knew that the
Involuntary manslaughter—introductionManslaughter can be classified as either voluntary or involuntary. Voluntary manslaughter consists of those killings which would be murder (because the accused has the relevant mental element—hence the label voluntary manslaughter) but which are reduced to
This Practice Note examines:•why negative pledge clauses are used in commercial transactions •the consequences of breaching negative pledge provisions•how negative pledges are viewed in the context of security and quasi-security, and•key considerations when drafting a negative pledge clauseWhere
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