The illegality of an act will not of itself prevent its ratification1. Where the act of the agent is tortious, for example a trespass or an assault2, the principal may ratify and become liable but only to the extent of the acts to which the ratification relates3. The act of ratification may in itself constitute a tort by the principal; for example where the tort of conversion has been committed by the agent, any act by the principal inconsistent with the title of the third party will also amount to a conversion4. Some degree of knowledge by the principal
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