In order that the intended principal may be able effectively to ratify a contract, he must be in existence and ascertainable at the time of the act of the agent to be ratified, and be himself capable of entering into it1. If there is no such principal there can be no ratification, and the so-called agent may himself be liable on the contract2, and if so may, therefore, sue upon it3.
Contracts made in furtherance of the projects of an intended company, not actually formed, cannot be ratified by the company when it comes into existence, as the company could
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IntroductionShari'ah (also Sharia, Shariah or Shari’a) (literally, in Arabic, 'the path towards the watering place') or Islamic law is the legal system of the religion of Islam that sets out a system of duties or code of conduct for individuals to follow so that they may live their life in a
This Practice Note covers the legal framework and regulatory guidance to be considered in determining whether an arrangement constitutes a contract of insurance and the possible consequences of carrying on activities relating to a contract of insurance without the requisite regulatory permissionsThe
Criminal offences are generally divided into two categories: •conduct crimes, and •result crimesA conduct crime is a crime where only the forbidden conduct needs to be proved. For example, an accused is guilty of dangerous driving if they drove a motor vehicle dangerously on a road or other public
This Practice Note considers the different categories of contractual damages that may be available for financial loss (pecuniary loss), ie expectation-based damages, reliance-based damages and gains-based damages.For guidance on contractual damages generally, see Practice Note: Contractual
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