66. Form of ratification.

(4)     Manner of Ratification

66.     Form of ratification.

A ratification may be express, whether in writing or oral, or may be implied from conduct1. A claim by a principal on a voidable contract entered into by an agent without authority2 or a pleading relying on the efficacy of an unauthorised act3 is an adoption of the agency. The execution of a deed by an agent without authority, however, can only be ratified by deed or by matter of record4.