The receipt of purchase money is generally sufficient evidence of ratification of a sale, but not if it is received in ignorance of the true facts1. If the act alleged to be ratified is a fraudulent act, full knowledge and unequivocal adoption thereafter must be proved, or the circumstances of the alleged ratification must be such as to warrant the clear inference that the principal was adopting the agent's acts whatever they were and however culpable
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Who is a fiduciary?There is no comprehensive list of the relationships which give rise to the existence of fiduciary duties under common law. Some relationships are automatically fiduciary, eg those between trustee and beneficiary, solicitor and client, principal and agent, business partner and
The offence of causing grievous bodily harm with intentWounding or causing grievous bodily harm (GBH) with intent is triable only in the Crown Court on indictment. Elements of the offence Under the Offences against the Person Act 1861 (OATPA 1861), the prosecution must prove the defendant unlawfully
This Practice Note provides a high-level introduction to diversity and inclusion (D&I) and key reasons why it is important to law firms. Specific aspects of D&I are covered in more detail in Practice Notes:•The growing focus on diversity and inclusion (D&I) in law firms•Unconscious bias—law
For guidance on the basic features of the doctrine of estoppel and the different classifications it has been subject to, see Practice Note: Estoppel—what, when and how to plead and related content.Promissory estoppel—what is it?Where A has, by words or conduct, made to B a clear and unequivocal
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