As a general rule, no act or default on the part of an agent imposes any criminal liability on the principal in respect thereof, unless the principal himself takes part in or authorises the commission of such act or default1.
The general rule is, however, subject to two exceptions. First, the principal may be criminally liable at common law for a public nuisance2 committed by him through the instrumentality of his agent3. Secondly, a particular statute may, by its express terms or by implication, impose a criminal
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