| Commentary

93 Prevention, restriction or distortion of competition

| Commentary

93 Prevention, restriction or distortion of competition

European Union competition law affects both the licensing of works in which copyright subsists and the distribution of goods manufactured by or with the consent of a copyright owner or its licensee1.

Article 101(1) of the TFEU prohibits as incompatible with the common market all agreements between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which may affect trade between member states and which have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition. Examples of prohibited practices include but are not limited to:

  1. 93.1

        directly or indirectly fixing purchase

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